World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF)

Originally founded as World Wildlife Fund on April 29, 1961 in Switzerland, this charity organization is committed to the international protection of species, the sustainable use of natural resources, the conservation of biodiversity, and the reduction of humanity’s ecological footprint. The WWF grew rapidly after its inception, adding a large number of country chapters around the world. In 1975, the WWF launched its first worldwide campaign for the protection of tropical rain forests. Five years later, together with the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), they developed a global strategy for environmental conservation. Another significant effort was their campaign for a worldwide ban on whaling, which contributed to the efforts of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and led to a moratorium in 1986 (Japan, Iceland, and Norway did not ratify the ban, however). Still today, the monitoring of local and global environmental change remains a core competency of the WWF, and its initial mission “to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature” is still intact.

Further Readings: 
  • Jeffries, Barney. WWF Annual Review 2011. Gland: World Wilde Fund of Nature, 2012.
  • Manfredo, Michael J., et al., eds. Wildlife and Society: The Science of Human Dimensions. Washington: Island Press, 2008.
  • Manfredo, Michael J. Who Cares about Wildlife? Social Science Concepts for Exploring Human-Wildlife Relationships and Conversation Issues. New York: Springer, 2008.
  • Schwarzenbach, Alexis. WWF, die Biografie. München: Collection Rolf Heyne, 2011.