Content Index

Peru nationalizes its guano reserves, beginning a period historians refer to as “the guano age.”

To protect the recently created Yosemite National Park against exploitation, John Muir founds the Sierra Club as the first grassroots environmental organization in the United States.

A great drought and subsequent famine strikes Southern India from 1876–1878.

The landscape designers Vaux and Olmsted draft plans for New York City’s “Central Park,” a space in which to escape the city’s noise, pollution, and crowding.

Increased European demand for rubber leads to the destruction of forests in West and Central Africa.

The eruption of this volcano kills over 150 people and transforms the landscape of New Zealand’s North Island.

The first “Earth Day” is celebrated in the US in 1970; by 1990 it is observed worldwide.

Since its foundation in 1980, the German Green Party (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen) has maintained a strong environmental platform and reshaped the German political landscape.

The completion of the original Aswan Dam fundamentally changes Egypt’s irrigation system.

A severe drought hits the region of the Sahel and West African Sudan, causing widespread famines.