Content Index

The career of the word “ecology” takes off. The term will increasingly be used to describe all aspects of interaction between living creatures and their environment.

“Lothar” and “Martin” are the most destructive storms in recent European history, affecting the European mainland from northwestern France all the way to Switzerland and Southern Germany.

The introduction of the rinderpest virus into Africa by Europeans decimates cattle and wildlife populations, leading to severe famines.

Following the emergence of its colonial forest service, France establishes the first forest reserves to manage the precious tropical rain forests in Cochinchina (present-day Vietnam).

The Jenolan Caves in the Blue Mountains become Australia’s first landscape reservation.

The Suez Canal is completed under French supervision and becomes one of the world’s most important waterways.

The completion of this infrastructure leads to lasting controversy over the severe deterioration in the flow of the Ganges and the decay of the river as an inland waterway.

The introduction of rabbits to Australia led to significant loss of other species.

Guano, one of the main export goods in South America in the mid-nineteenth century, becomes a central cause of the Chincha Islands War.

The flood kills more than 2,200 people. In 1889 this was the greatest loss of civilian life in US history.