The Ancient Battlefield at Kalkriese


This article describes and interprets the remains of an ancient battlefield near Kalkriese, close to Osnabrück in the German federal state of Lower Saxony. The article links this battlefield to the historical accounts of the “Battle of Teutoberg Forest” in the year 9 AD, in which three Roman legions suffered a devastating defeat at the hands of Germanic troops. The authors discuss how to account for the disparities between the historical sources describing the course of the battle and the treatment of the dead after the end of the battle, and their own archaeological and anthropological findings.