iron

"Production Cycles and Decline in Traditional Iron Smelting in the Maidan, Southern India, c. 1750–1950: An Environmental History Perspective"

This paper explores how economics, technology, politics and ecology interacted in causing ups and downs in the production of traditional iron making, and its subsequent decline in the early twentieth century.

"Medieval Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Strategic or Adapted Land Use in the Swedish Mining District?"

The general view in Swedish historiography of an inherent conflict between iron-making and the practice of slash-and-burn is questioned on the basis of this palaeoecological case study of repeated slash-and-burn cultivation from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries in a mining district of central Sweden.