Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel

The Society for the Preservation of Nature in Israel (SPNI) was established in 1953, five years after the founding of the state of Israel, in response to plans to turn land in the Hula Valley over to agriculture. The SPNI works on the protection of biodiversity, environmental education, bird protection, and the promotion of ecotourism that is as sustainable as possible. Initially, the organization was closely linked to the Israeli government’s environment policy. However, during the course of the 1980s it increasingly developed an autonomous agenda more critical of state decisions to develop remaining open spaces in Israel. SPNI is also one of the leading voices for the preservation of Israel’s fragile ecosystems.

Further Readings: 
  • Tal, Alon. Pollution in a Promised Land: An Environmental History of Israel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.